The cannabis plant is a true multi-talent due to its diverse applications. Already 12,000 years ago, people used the potential of this plant to make clothes, sails or paper. The first records documenting the use of cannabis as medicine are about 4,700 years old.
THC is the most sought-after molecule of the cannabis plant and is responsible for the “rush” or “high”. CBD, on the other hand, has anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, relaxing effects and does not produce a “rush” or “high” feeling.
Thanks to its particular appearance, the plant is easy to identify. However, there are significant differences from variety to variety. The largest three subgroups of the cannabis plant are Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Ruderalis. We will try to bring some light into the darkness and will explain the different species, hybrid varieties and the further substance class of terpenes, as their areas of application and modes of action can vary greatly.
The Sativa kind is characterised by long, light green and thin leaves and can grow up to three to four metres high. Within nine to twelve weeks the plant starts to flower. It is interesting that only the female plant is harvested, and that different concentrations of THC and CBD can be found in sativa. The substances are mainly extracted from the flowers but can sometimes also be found in the leaves.
CBD is often extracted from the industrial plant Cannabis Sativa L. because it contains 2% to 5% CBD and at the same time hardly any THC.
In general, the sativa plant is said to have a rather stimulating effect and makes one agile, active and creative.
Unlike the Sativa plant, the leaves of the Indica are shorter, thicker and rather dark green. It also grows only one to two metres tall and is ready to be harvested after only six to nine weeks.
Unlike sativa, indica is said to have a relaxing effect that makes you feel calm and tired.
Ruderalis is thought to be the third species of cannabis plant. However, biologists still discuss about this fact. It is a wild plant that grows only one to two metres tall. Ruderalis is not used for industrial production and is therefore not traded. It has a low THC content and, with only three to four weeks, this type of cannabis plant flowers the fastest to flower.
Through genetic manipulation and crossbreeding, there are now more than 3,000 different varieties of cannabis. Most of them are highly bred hybrids with a high THC content of 25%. As a result, the differences in the effects of Sativa and Indica varieties are hardly noticeable. Sativa could have sedative effects, while Indica strains could have stimulant effects.
Another substance class among cannabis plants are the Terpenes, which are comparable to aromatic oils. Limonene, Pinene and Mycrene are only three examples of about 200 different Terpenes. They are said to have health-promoting properties, but it is difficult to identify which Terpenes cause which effect, as the cannabis plant consists of many different components and it is therefore difficult to establish a systematic. Thus, it is possible that the Terpenes can have an influence on the calming effects of cannabis.
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